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Translated by Elena Nichols
Trieste, 10th November 2002
Whilst exploring the extreme limits of the hydrogen atom, I have discovered that the proton mass and the quark mass originate from a gaseous cloud of micro-particles.
Starting from a gamma photon it is possible to reconstruct the whole evolutionary cycle of matter on any scale.
This is the announcement of a scientific revolution, which confirms present day science, whilst it overturns the general reference framework.. The foundations of a new physics are being laid here. The results obtained are thus of sufficient importance to justify their immediate presentation.
The only atom known to modern science is that which has already completed its formative cycle. In opposition to this general view, the new physics hypothesizes the existence of a ”prenatal atom”, with no identity, still in the embryonic stages of its formation. In particular I have discovered that the “prenatal” atom of hydrogen is the sole matrix of the Universe, since it possesses the extraordinary property of collecting environmental radiation (light, gamma photons, thermal radiation, ultra-violet rays, etc.) and converting it into matter. The evolutionary process is as follows: a beam of external radiation enters the prenatal atom, depositing an element of itself therein in the form of mass energy, then exits with reduced energy. The sequence of events is as follows: the radiation bursting into the prenatal atom produces a gaseous cloud of micro-particles the density of which increases as will be described below: the cloud – called here prenatal gas or “Levius Gas” – in its quantum expansion (that is, in leaps and bounds) cools the atom down to a temperature close to absolute zero. This extreme environmental condition causes the condensation of gas which collects progressively at the centre of the system, thus forming the proton mass: it is by a similar process that atmospheric humidity condenses and falls to the ground, thereby forming dewdrops. Protons thus condense energy clouds and consequently should be considered as the dew of the Universe.
For more than a century generations of physicists have been searching for the origin of the proton in the primordial heat: however, that mysterious origin lay in a niche of primordial cold plunged into a very high-temperature environment (deep-freezers function in summer too).
Hydrogen is the lightest substance existing in nature: for its part, as seen above, it originates from a Levius Gas (so called because it is even lighter and more rarefied than hydrogen): the density of the cloud of micro-particles, calculated in the volume of utmost expansion, is nearly 5,500 times more rarefied than hydrogen.
The formative process of the proton may remind one, by analogy, of the consistent compaction of atoms, produced in a laboratory for the first time in 1995, known as Bose-Einstein condensate, which is obtained by bringing a gas to a temperature close to absolute zero. Thus, by analogy, the proton is made up of condensed micro-particles. The micro-particle in question is termed herein “unitary grain of minimum energy” (or micro-granule) and is bound to replace the quark in our perception as the ultimate component of matter.
In the evolutionary cycle of matter there is, therefore, an extraordinary symmetry: a gaseous cloud of micro-particles (Levius Gas) is condensed and forms the hydrogen atom. In a mirror-like way, though at a higher energy level, a gaseous cloud of hydrogen atoms is condensed, eventually giving rise to the formation of stars. As everybody knows, all chemical elements, for their part, are formed within stars (nuclear synthesis). Finally, the explosion of Supernovae spreads throughout the cosmos matter destined to be put into an endlessly repeated evolutionary cycle.
In the dynamics described thus far, environmental conditionings play a deciding role. I have reason to believe that the quarks and the other subatomic particles originate from a similar formative process. One is led to think that the new theory may unify particle physics with spectrology, at present far removed from one another.
I believe that the prenatal atom, owing to its fundamental role, should be placed at the centre of the Universe: indeed, it is omnipresent, represents the connecting link between micro-cosmos and macro-cosmos and possesses all the information governing the evolutionary cycle of matter on all scales, from the formation of subatomic particles up to the formation of celestial bodies.
The hydrogen atom is the simplest and most widespread substance in the Universe. It is made up of an electron, with negative electrical charge, which revolves round a proton with opposite charge. That is all, but despite such apparent simplicity, the origin of many of the parameters identifying this atom is unknown: for example, we do not know the origin of the electric charge, we still do not know the origin and the role played by the proton mass, just as we do not know some of the parameters that make possible the equilibrium inside the nucleus. In light of that, I am informing the scientific community that I have analytically discovered the origin of the mass ratio existing between electron and proton. This finding constitutes the evidence that the origin and the evolution of hydrogen coincide with the origin and the evolution of the Universe.
The new physics, enunciated here for the first time, is based on a single assumption: anything that exists in nature is originally produced through the interaction between two complementary and mutually determining factors: the dynamic equilibrium between all the energies present in a system and the related binding environmental conditioning. Indeed, every dynamics of events can develop only within the physical and mathematical boundaries which define the individual parameters outlining the system. The system itself, for its part, is conditioned by its own boundaries. In the end, the study of the new physics merely consists of the research of the boundaries that pre-determine the conformation of physical reality. In every physical phenomenon, in any case, the comprehensive resultant of energy interaction, at both the early and final stages, must be referable to the ratio between two equivalent energies only. Cosmic becoming is, therefore, regulated by the E=E’ equation, which defines the principle of maximum dynamic, formative and selective balancing between “all” the forms of energy present in the system. I claim the paternity of the formulation of this absolute universal law: the principle of energy conservation expresses the result of the transformation process examined, absolute law, however, describes the instrument and the only way to obtain such result (one cannot confuse the ditch with ditching-machine). All the noble founders of physics have occasionally and unconsciously used the law of energy balancing, but none of them has ever grasped the majestic universal value. Thus, in a similar way, for centuries apples continued to fall from their trees to the general indifference until Newton discovered the law of gravity in that phenomenon.
As to the present subject, the hydrogen atom represents the only solution admissible in the game of mutual conditionings between all relevant forms of energy (including the globally convertible forms). The general reference framework implies – though for the time being only as a hypothesis – that the opposite assumption can apply too: the hydrogen atom is the point from which all the universal physical constant factors branch off. Planck’s constant factor, for example, discovered in the laboratory at the beginning of last century, was conveyed into the hydrogen atom to justify its behaviour in radial emissions: that is, science has arbitrarily inverted the chronology of events. Since the hydrogen atom was formed more than ten thousand million years before the black body used by Planck, it is clear that the origin of the universal constant factor has to be sought in that atom and not in a laboratory. Evidence for this appears when one takes into consideration, by analogy, the fine structure’s constant factor (known under letter alpha) which defines the electron speed at the fundamental level of the hydrogen atom: it represents the only solution admissible in the balancing between two energies, as provided for in the absolute law. If one broadens this view, one has to assume that the hydrogen atom, underestimated for a century, represents the origin of all physical sciences.
Moreover, physical reality is the only possible product if compared with the limits defining the field of existence of the various forms of energy (speed of light, temperature of absolute zero, transcendent numbers, etc.). Such limits are projected over the whole system and shape it. Let us see a few examples.
During its revolution round the nucleus, the electron emits a swaying radiation. In that context, present day science has assumed the existence of a unique environmental conditioning – called quantum condition - owing to which the electron can cover only those orbits which can contain a whole number of waves (nλ = 2πr). Otherwise the waves destroy one another by interference: just as if one pushed a seesaw in the opposite way. The above mentioned quantum condition predetermines the dimensioning of all known parameters that describe the atom: electron speed, orbit ray, spectroscopic behaviour, relativistic increase in the mass etc. The predetermining of parameters states a universal principle: the Universe itself, considered as container of celestial bodies, is nothing but an evolutionary projection of hydrogen: as a matter of fact stars, as has been said above, originate from enormous hydrogen clusters that condensed.
Thus, in order to justify the unknown parameters of the atom, the existence of new quantum conditions had to be discovered. And here is the result obtained: in fact, I have discovered that in the prenatal atom there are another five quantum conditions unknown to official science. Moreover, it is certain that many other conditions must still be discovered, if only to justify the equilibriums governing the nucleus: I believe I have disclosed a new important field of research. The first condition, the most important of all, of course, has already been illustrated (“maximum energy balancing”). I shall summarize the others below.
In a stormy ocean the energy of a wave can be devastating. In a quiet lagoon, however, the same wave brakes sweetly on the shore. Present day science peacefully assumes that there is a directly proportional ratio between radial energy and the wave expressing such energy. In contradistinction thereto, I have discovered that in the prenatal atom, radial energy and the “corresponding” row of waves proceed in correlation only over a certain distance, after which – surprisingly – when they are close to the opposed destinations, they split: theoretically, radial energy should exhaust itself endlessly, while the row of waves ceases to exist at a predetermined critical Threshold. In effect when a row of waves traverses an expanding circumference, the greatest distance between one wave and another cannot in any way exceed the actual length of the circumference being traversed. This means that for every circumference that can be traversed by a row of waves there is a critical Threshold of maximum expansion, like an insurmountable barrier for the same waves. This barrier does not at all influence radial energy (energy can never be exhausted. It is usually converted). In such context, therefore, a curious paradox appears, that is, minimum remaining radial energy (“non nulla”), the waves of which, however, exhaust themselves beforehand, since they have reached their maximum expansion. Radiation and matter de-couple and this phenomenon must to be interpreted as the origin of the proton.
Of course radial energy (“non nulla”), without any waves “of its own”, collapses and assumes the anonymous identity of a “quantum of minimum energy”, bound for its part to be converted into a new fundamental particle, devoid of electric charge and extremely small – the “unitary grain” (or micro-granule) – numbers of which, collecting at the centre of the system, will form the proton mass. The unitary grain has a mass slightly less than 1/20 eV (electronvolt), whilst the electron mass amounts to 510998,902 eV and the presumed quark mass is that of thousands of millions of electronvolts.
Of course, there is a mechanism of repetition of the phenomenon providing the required collection of excess energy. Repetition takes place in a nearly exponential way, that is, it undergoes a very fast and significant growth.
In addition to the foregoing, it can be assumed that the nucleus of the prenatal atom is made up of a positron (which is the anti-particle of the electron carrying a positive charge and is produced by materialization of a high energy gamma photon. In other words, it is light that becomes matter). If, as one is led to believe, such a structure of the prenatal atom were to be confirmed, the positron would be annihilated from the its early formative cycle, swept away by a stream of thousands of millions of unitary grains. The fact that matter has prevailed over antimatter could be historically explained by this phenomenon. Nor we can we rule out the hypothesis according to which the “unitary grain” can be identified with the “electronic neutrino” the mass of which is presently being sought in laboratories all over the world. In the course of my studies I have taken care to avoid the tautological mistake, that is to “discover” a purported scientific truth already unwittingly existing unbeknownst in the premise.
I have identified another quantum condition lying in the unchangeable spectrum. The channelled spectrum of hydrogen is a sort of bar code registering radiation emitted or absorbed by the atom when subjected to external stress (e.g. when heated). The hydrogen spectrum concerning solar emissions, as tested in the laboratory, is always the same, in spite of differences of environmental temperature in given cases. This fact proves that the distribution of orbit is constant, since it has now reached the limit condition. When high energy radiation enters prenatal atom, it cannot at all modify the said condition, but it can perform it again within the limits of environmental conditionings. The phenomenon develops as follows: the electron orbiting at the fundamental level (the first one, closest to the nucleus) receives a propelling thrust that projects it to the second level, at a greater distance predefined as quantum. At that level there is, however, the overlapping of a new virtual orbit distribution, cloned from the previous one; as a result the fundamental level (always and only that one) is reproduced at an increasing distance from the nucleus, in an endless cycle, until a “new” environmental condition interrupts duplication. In this context the number of orbits is bound to grow until it attains a maximum limit, which coincides, remarkably, with the total number of orbits present in the whole periodic Table of elements. In other words, prenatal atom contains a premonitory memory capable of predetermining the existence of chemical elements before they actually appear.
Another quantum condition is the environment traversed by radiation, in which the atom is placed at its origin: such radiation starts the evolutionary cycle of matter and supplies the energy required to produce particles.
The last environmental condition depends on the laws of thermodynamics and defines the energy capacity of the quantum virtual Sphere containing the prenatal atom (such Sphere represents all the orbits that can be traversed and these are examined according to the volume of their maximum expansion, regardless of their uninfluential actual form). The hydrogen atom assumes its own identity at the very moment such energy retention capacity is saturated.
To sum up, the present Universe can exist only because its existence has been predetermined by all combined quantum conditions present in the system (both discovered and undiscovered). Anything else is detail. The transcendent dilemma remains unsolved, that is which Law predetermined …determinism?
The reconstruction of events presented thus far is certain to undergo improvements and modifications, since I am not a specialist in the above mentioned disciplines. Whilst bearing in mind the limits of knowledge defined by Karl Popper, the philosopher of science, none can doubt that the credibility of present day science is dangerously compromised owing to the contradictions illustrated above: in any event scientific research will have to re-start from the new physics, be it accepted or rejected. As a matter of fact, the questions raised concern the very foundations of physics and will have to be addressed. The results obtained cannot in any way be the fruit of various and concomitant fortuitousness. Therefore, I am optimistic with regard to the outcome, even if acknowledgement of the new physics implies a re-formulation of science.
For a more in-depth view, see the scientific report http://utenti.lycos.it/nuovafisica.
Enclosures in English: passages taken from the scientific report (30 pages, only Italian version)
The following is an analytical illustration of the dynamics of events, taking into consideration the Threshold condition [Note: alpha is the constant factor of fine structure and n is the threshold level; m = electron mass; M = proton mass; a0 Bohr radius].
(40) radiation and matter decouple since the maximum expansion of waves is reached; the breaking of energy balancing is bound to rebuild elsewhere a new energy symmetry on a different scale. Absolute law states that the evolutionary cycle of matter can develop only by changing from an initial energy balance to a subsequent energy balance;
(41) remaining radial energy forced to convert into mass energy owing to the extinction of its own waves when it reaches the critical Threshold;
(42) defines the change of scale (from n to N - i.e. from 18 to 4278 levels of the Periodic Table of elements): the electron kinetic energy no longer counterbalanced, on n scale, has to refer to the environment in which it finds itself (N Scale);
(43) formation of mx mass of micro-grain (unitary grain of minimum energy). The proton is produced through the collection of great quantities of mx;
(44) energy absorption at the expense of the environment. Re-establishing of kinetic energy of the fundamental level which represents the insuperable limit predefined by the quantum condition After the starting conditions are re-established, the evolutionary cycle of matter can be repeated until it is stopped by a new quantum condition (temperature falls to absolute zero due to gas expansion).
The proton is defined by summation of all micro-particles
(45) expresses the superimposition of the five stages of the evolutionary cycle. If developed, one obtains the following result:
simplifying and taking into account the relativistic increase of mass ΔRB and of other secondary parameters
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